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How to Achieve Load Demand With Low Emission Using The PAF II Low NOx Burner

As a power plant operator, you already know how hard it is to avoid exceeding your permitted emission levels. If your plant is in the process of converting from coal to natural gas or it’s an older gas-fired conventional plant, this makes your job even harder. 

Add in other complications - such as rising fuel costs or the current phase-out of main flame coal applications - and striking this already delicate balance between maintaining emission levels and hitting load targets becomes a daily uphill battle.

Excessive emission levels can lead to state and federal fines and heat rate reduction notices if left unchecked. Before you know it, your plant becomes D-rated, and your run hours are significantly reduced. Repeated issues can even lead to bad press from conservation groups, long-term damage to your brand reputation, and skyrocketing operating costs. The only way to stop this vicious cycle is to make significant operational changes.

After serving more than 1000 plants in more than 100 countries, our team at Forney understands the need to have a sustainable solution that allows you to achieve the target load on demand while maintaining your allowable emission levels.

To help you achieve this goal, we created the PAF II Low NOx Burner.

PAF II Low NOx Burner

Installed PAF II Burners

The PAF II Low NOx Burner was designed to streamline your daily operations and simplify routine maintenance procedures. Our Forney engineers designed a low NOx burner that removed all the inefficient burner parts that complicate and slow plant operations. With the removal of spinner vanes, diffusers, swirlers, dampers, and venturis, your team can maintain optimal operations with minimal maintenance effort.

Our Low NOx Burner includes the standard Forney Package, including flame detectors, fuel trains, a burner management system, and double block & vent assemblies. If desired, various control systems can also be provided, such as point positioning control and fully cross-limited control with oxygen compensation.

The PAF II Low NOx Burner is the result of over 90 years of experience designing, manufacturing, installing, and servicing state-of-the-art combustion equipment. This experience has led to a cutting-edge design that works for: 

  • Any coal or oil-fired plants converting to gas
  • Any power boiler in the process of converting from coal to natural gas
  • Any large burner (20-300 MMBTU/hr) that’s currently using liquid fuel, natural gas, waste gas, or propane fuel

PAF II Low NOx Burner Components

Air Frame

The PAF II Low NOx Burner air frame is designed after its successful predecessor, the Forney Parallel Air Flow (PAF) Burner. In this design, the windbox air is directed through the burner in a parallel and non-spinning manner, which enhances the burner’s low NOx performance by carefully controlling the mixture of fuel and air for optimal NOx reduction. 

Sleeve Damper

Each PAF II Low NOx Burner is supplied with a pneumatically operated sleeve damper to shut off the air flow to out-of-service burners and is supported by sleeve bearings. 

The Forney PAF II Low NOx can also be retrofitted to existing windboxes by providing a custom front plate designed to fit the existing bold pattern without altering the original throat diameter in most cases.

Gas Canes

The PAF II Low NOx Gas Canes are proven effective on both new and retrofitted low NOx applications. Fuel gas is emitted to the burner through bevel tip gas canes in the low-velocity air stream portion of the burner. These tips are permanently positioned to direct the gas in the optimal direction, ensuring maximum stability and minimum NOx formation.


Every PAF II Low NOx Burner is also installed with Forney’s most reliable gas igniter - the MaxFire® gas igniter, which uses a HESI ignition source.  

Flame Detectors

Forney’s complete line of Ultraviolet, Infrared, or Dual Range flame detectors are available for both the PAF II Low NOx Burner’s main flame and ignition flame detection.

PAF II Low NOx Burner Advantages

One of the hundreds of PAF II Burner we have shipped to satisfied customers across the world

Significantly Lower NOx Levels

The PAF II Low NOx Burner has proven NOx reductions of up to 40% on natural gas. This reduction percentage can be improved to 80% with overfire air (OFA) or external flue gas recirculation (FGR) control methods.

PAF II Low NOx Burner’s Furnace flue gas is recirculated back into the combustion zone through the high-velocity air stream action around the low-velocity air streams. This process significantly reduces NOx formation through the lowering of the combustion flame temperature. With this more efficient method, you don’t need to purchase additional fans, ducting, or controls that most Flue Gas Recirculation systems require.

More Reliable Plant Operations

With its parallel airflow design, the PAF II Burner is an evolution of Forney’s extremely durable original PAF Burner with updated modifications for use in low excess air operations. All of the core burner components are battle-tested and designed for extensive use in even the harshest industrial settings.

Better Flame Stability

The strong recirculation area of the PAF II Burner generates a stable flame front that doesn’t require the use of a diffuser or a swirler. Operations using Forney’s PAF II Burner routinely report a turndown ratio of 5:1 or lower.

Simplified Maintenance

PAF II Low NOx Burners use commonly available components, making them easy for you and your tech crew to service, repair, and maintain.

Better Operations

Once the PAF II Low NOx Burner is installed and operational, plants can expect significantly lower emissions, low pressure drops, and ease of tuning. 

Ensured Quality

PAF II Low NOx Burners come with a factory warranty and are designed to meet all industry safety and environmental specifications. 

PAF II Low NOx Burner Specifications


The PAF-II Low NOx burner reaches a proven 40% NOx reduction on natural gas over legacy burner designs. When using control methods such as overfire air (OFA) and external flue gas recirculation (FGR), NOx reduction rates can reach up to 80%

The table below shows the simulation result of NOx levels at varying air temperatures when using the PAF-II Low NOx Burner:

These NOx emissions results are average results generated with typical fuel types and temperature levels that are standard at many plants. To calculate expected NOx emissions results for your unique site situation, contact your local Forney representative today.

Ready to get your PAF-II Low NOx Burner?

All of our PAF-II Low NOx Burners include a comprehensive factory warranty, and all burners are guaranteed to provide lower emissions and better performance at your site location. Once installed, you can expect to see conclusive benefits within hours of initial operation.

To learn more about our warranty and guarantees, contact your local Forney representative today.

Multi-unit discounts for PAF Burners available

About Forney

Forney Corporation has over 93 years of experience manufacturing the safest and most reliable combustion equipment for more than 1,000 power plants in more than 100 countries. The quality and durability of Forney’s state-of-the-art front-end combustion components have been proven by customers in many industries across the globe. Forney igniters, burners, BMS, flame detectors, dampers, and duct burners have provided efficiencies and cost savings for plant operators in electric utilities, chemical processing, pulp & paper, and cement industries.